A LADDER OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

A TYPOLOGY OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IS PRESENTED USING EXAMPLES FROM THREE FEDERAL SOCIAL PROGRAMS: URBAN RENEWAL, ANTI-POVERTY, AND MODEL CITIES. THE TYPOLOGY IS ARRANGED IN A LADDER PATTERN WITH EACH ONE CORRESPONDING TO THE EXTENT OF CITIZENS' POWER IN DETERMINING THE PLAN/OR PROGRAM. THE EIGHT RUNGS OF THE LADDER CORRESPOND TO THE EXTENT OF THE CITIZENS' POWER IN DETERMINING THE END PRODUCT: (1) MANIPULATION, (2) THERAPY, (3) INFORMING, (4) CONSULTATION, (5) PLACATION, (6) PARTNERSHIP, (7) DELEGATED POWER, AND (8) CITIZEN CONTROL. THE UPPER RUNGS OF THE LADDER ARE LEVELS OF CITIZEN POWER WITH INCREASING DEGREES OF DECISION-MAKING. THE LADDER JUXTAPOSES POWERLESS CITIZENS WITH THE POWERFUL IN ORDER TO HIGHLIGHT THE FUNDAMENTAL DIVISIONS BETWEEN THEM. EACH GROUP ENCOMPASSES A HOST OF DIVERGENT POINTS OF VIEW, SIGNIFICANT CLEAVAGES, COMPETING VESTED INTERESTS, AND SPLINTERED SUBGROUPS. ASPECTS AND PROCEDURES OF EACH OF THESE GROUPS ARE DISCUSSED. ARGUMENTS AGAINST COMMUNITY CONTROL ARE PRESENTED. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY VALUES AND PLANNING IS RECOMMENDED TO CREATE AND CONTROL THE CENTRALIZED PUBLIC SERVICES SUCH AS POLICE PROTECTION, EDUCATION SYSTEMS, AND HEALTH FACILITIES.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Vol 35, No 4, PP 216-224, 2 FIG
  • Authors:
    • Arnstein, S R
  • Publication Date: 1969-7

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00239908
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 29 1994 12:00AM