Metropolitan Bangkok, with a present population of about 3 million and a projected year 2,000 population of almost 10 million, faces serious drainage and wastewater disposal problems. The average ground elevation is not much more than 1 m above mean sea level. Although the region is drained by a major river (Chao Phya) and is crossed by numerous klongs, or canals, it has been subject to recurring floods. Increased urbanization resulted in the filling in of many klongs for roadways, which exacerbated the already serious flooding conditions. Wastewater from a rapidly growing population and expanding industries could not be disposed properly by the existing combined sewage system. Effluent (including that from dwellings) was discharged into septic tanks and then to street drains which discharge to the nearest klong. As a result, those canals which remained unfilled were becoming open sewers, with the concomitant dangers to health and aesthetic unsightliness. These conditions prompted the government of Thailand to sponsor a sewerage, drainage, and flood protection master plan for metropolitan Bangkok. The master plan, completed in 1968 by Camp Dresser & McKee, included recommendations for a first-phase programme of drainage improvements in the Rama IV Road area. Rama IV Road is the principal access route to the busy Bangkok port on the east bank of the Chao Phya River. This area has suffered from disruptive flooding almost every rainy season (June through October).

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  • Corporate Authors:

    Morgan-Grampian Limited

    30 Calderwood Street
    London SE18 6QH,   England 
  • Authors:
    • Kline, C E
    • Lovewell, J S
    • Jenny, R J
    • Gifford, D
  • Publication Date: 1973-9

Media Info

  • Features: Figures;
  • Pagination: p. 460-470
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

  • TRT Terms: Tunneling; Tunnels
  • Subject Areas: Bridges and other structures; Railroads;

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00048215
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 4 1974 12:00AM