Is the provision of park-and-ride facilities at light rail stations an effective approach to reducing vehicle kilometers traveled in a US context?

Park-and-Ride (PNR) facilities are a commonly used means of making a transit system more widely available. However, given that a PNR passenger must drive for part of the trip, this approach to transit provision has an ambiguous influence on vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). The impact of PNR on VKT is highly dependent of how PNR users would choose to travel if the PNR facilities were not available. Given that this issue has received little attention in a US context, the authors use the light rail system in Charlotte, North Carolina as a case study to examine the potential impact of PNR removal on VKT. Using a travel survey of PNR passengers, the authors estimate the VKT currently generated while driving to and from the rail stations and then estimate how VKT would change under various PNR removal scenarios that assume different behavioral responses. The authors find that, under the most realistic scenarios, PNR removal would lead the average PNR passenger to increase her driving by 8–15 VKT per round trip.


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  • Accession Number: 01535443
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 12 2014 11:11AM