Numerical Modeling of an Embankment over Soft Ground Improved with Deep Cement Mixed Columns: Case History

This paper describes a case history of a deep cement mixed (DCM) column-supported embankment that is part of the Ballina Bypass section of the Pacific Highway Upgrade project in Australia. Measured settlements during and after construction of the embankment were significantly greater than the predicted settlements and suggested that the DCM columns were yielded. The case history was analyzed using a finite-element model based on the coupled theory of nonlinear porous media. Two cases were analyzed: with and without the strain-softening behavior of DCM columns caused by breakage of the soil-cement structure. The computed settlements, excess pore-water pressures, and lateral deformations were compared with field measurements. Results show that there was good agreement between the measured and the computed parameters when the strain-softening behavior of the columns was included. These results clearly show that consideration of the strain softening of DCM columns in the analysis is important if yielding occurs during or after embankment construction.


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  • Accession Number: 01532963
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, ASCE
  • Created Date: Jul 30 2014 3:01PM