Methods of Laser Scanning of Transport Infrastructure Objects and Their Close Vicinity: Methodology

Metody laseroveho skenovani objektu dopravni infrastruktury a jejich blizkoho okoli: Metodika

In general, 3D scanning systems allow for contactless determination of spatial coordinates of points, 3D modelling, visualization of complex structures and constructions, interiors, underground systems, arbitrary terrains, etc., with extraordinary speed, precision, complexity and safety. Not all the systems which provide spatial point data work with laser as their measuring element. This report deals with the systems, known as laser scanners, which use the laser beam to measure distances using physical quantities. Laser scanning systems are a modern and fast growing technology of spatial data collection. Aerial systems were already developing in the 1990s, they are often called lidars (LIDAR – Light Detection And Ranging). After 2000, there has been fast development of terrestric 3D scanning systems, and nowadays there is a wide range of such systems with different principles of data collection. The newest technology are mobile mapping systems, whose fast development only started very recently, after 2005. With the use of software, a scanned object can be displayed in the form of the so-called point cloud, on which basis a model can be created and imported into a CAD system. The majority of laser scanning systems use the latest pulse laser technology for measuring distances and determine the position of points by the spatial polar method. In comparison with geodetic methods, laser scanning is a non-selective measurement method. Regarding the geodetic methods including photogrammetry, the coordinates of selected points of an object, e.g. edges, vertices, etc., are determined for the subsequent modelling. In contrast, points are spread non-selectively in a regular angle grid and the characteristic points of an object are collected by the subsequent selection for laser scanning. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the required accuracy of irregular object modelling with regard to covering their surface by detailed points. Some of the main advantages of 3D laser scanners include: fast collection of directly measured spatial coordinates of points (thousands up to millions of points per second), completely automated operation, for mobile systems an option to measure under high speed while not obstructing road traffic. An advantage is a high price for the measuring device and the necessity to use special software to process point clouds.

  • Corporate Authors:

    Transport Research Centre (CDV)

    Líšeňská 33a
    Brno,   Czech Republic  CZ-636 00

    Geovap, spol. s r.o.

    Cechovo nabrezi 1790
    Pardubice,   Czech Republic  53003
  • Authors:
    • Pazdera, J
    • STRYK, J
    • Kourim, Bohumil
    • MATULA, R
  • Publication Date: 2013-12

Language

  • English
  • Czech

Media Info

  • Media Type: Print
  • Features: Figures; Tables;
  • Pagination: 26 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01539404
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Centre (CDV)
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Jul 25 2014 9:28AM