SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NETGHBORHOODS AS INDICATORS OF THE EFFECTS OF HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENTS

THE SOCIAL FEASIBILITY MODEL DEVELOPED FOR THIS RESEARCH WAS DESIGNED FOR USE AT EARLY STAGES OF CORRIDOR LOCATION RECONNAISSANCE. IT RELIES MAINLY ON AVAILABLE SECONDARY DATA, AND REQUIRES MINIMAL WORK IN THE FIELD. ITS PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE EASILY AVAILABLE SOCIAL DATA FOR MAKING PRELIMINARY JUDGMENTS ON CORRIDOR LOCATION. THE SOCIAL FEASIBILITY MODEL IS BASED ON EMPIRICALLY-DETERMINED SOCIAL EFFECTS IN FOUR CASE STUDY NEIGHBORHOODS ADJACENT TO TWO FREEWAYS. THE FOUR NEIGHBORHOODS INCLUDE A RANGE OF INCOME, RACIAL AND ETHNIC CHARACTERISTICS, MOBILITY AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS. THE STUDY OF THESE TWO PARTICULAR FREEWAYS, WHICH WERE BUILT ABOUT TEN YEARS APART, REFLECTS TO A LARGE EXTENT THE IMPROVEMENTS WHICH HAVE ALREADY BEEN MADE IN THE APPROACH TO HIGHWAY PLANNING. CASE-STUDY ANALYSIS WAS BASED UPON A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF COMMUNITY-PRESERVING ACTIVITIES. THE RELEVANT ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THIS FRAMEWORK WERE: PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, AND DISTRIBUTION (SHOPPING AND WORK); SOCIALIZATION (SCHOOLS); SOCIAL SOCIAL PARTICIPATION (CHURCHES AND CLUBS); SOCIAL CONTROL (FIRE AND POLICE); AND MUTUAL SUPPORT (COMMUNITY SERVICES). LOCAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS WERE MEASURED ALONG THREE DIMENSIONS: ACCESS, SUPPORT, AND USER CHARACTERISTICS. THE PRECISE DEFINITION OF ACTIVITY PATTERNS AS BEHAVIORAL FACTORS FACILITATED BOTH THE EVALUATION OF SOCIAL IMPACT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPERATIONAL PREDICTIVE MODEL. THE COMPARATIVE BEFORE-AND-AFTER FREEWAY ANALYSIS IN THE FOUR CASE STUDIES INDICATED THAT THE MOST SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES DETERMINING SOCIAL EFFECTS WERE: DEPENDENCE ON PEDESTRIAN ACCESS, VITALITY OF ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF THE FREEWAY, AND THE DEGREE OF PHYSICAL IMPACT ON THE NEIGHBORHOOD. ACCORDINGLY, THE PREDICTIVE MODEL WAS DEVELOPED TO IDENTIFY DEPENDENCY ON PEDESTRIAN ACCESS TO WAS DEVISED USING A COMBINATION OF MAPPING AND MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES, AND DATA CAN BE MAPPED (GRAPHICALLY DISPLAYED) AT ANY PHASE. THE FINAL PRODUCT OF THE MODEL IDENTIFIES FOR THE HIGHWAY ENGINEER STRONG PEDESTRIAN DEPENDENCY AREAS WHERE HIGHWAYS CAN BE EXPECTED TO PRODUCE STRONG NEGATIVE NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACT; IT PROBIDES A METHOD BY WHICH ALL NEIGHBORHOODS CAN BE RATED AS TO THEIR FEASIBILITY FOR A HIGHWAY CORRIDOR. IT FURTHER INDICATES SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE STUDY AREAS WHERE SPECIAL TREATMENT OF HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENT WOULD BE DESIRABLE, IN ORDER TO PRESERVE THE ACTIVITY PATTERNS CONTRIBUTING TO THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF NEIGHBORHOOD RESIDENTS. /AUTHOR/

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Contract DOT/FH 11-7789 APPS
  • Corporate Authors:

    Federal Highway Administration

    1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  USA  20590

    Marshall Kaplan Gans and Kahn

    ,    
  • Publication Date: 1972

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 169 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00240270
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, USDOT
  • Created Date: May 15 1974 12:00AM