RELATION OF FROST ACTION TO THE CLAY-MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL MATERIALS

DATA AND CONCEPTS ARE ANALYZED THAT HAVE COME FROM RECENT CLAY-MINERAL RESEARCHES THAT ARE PERTINENT TO THE MATTER OF FROST ACTION AND FROST HEAVING. TWO FACTORS REGARDING FROST ACTION IN CLAY MATERIALS ARE PARTICULARLY PERTINENT TO A CONSIDERATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CLAY MINERALS: (1) FROST HEAVING IS DUE TO THE GROWTH OF ICE CRYSTALS RATHER THAN TO A VOLUME CHANGE ACCOMPANYING A CHANGE IN STATE, AND (2) VARY FINE COLLOID-SIZED CLAY MATERIALS SHOW VERY LITTLE OR NO SEGREGATION OF ICE ON FREEZING. THE RELATION IS ANALYZED OF CLAY-MINERAL COMPOSITION TO FROST ACTION BY CONSIDERING A SOIL COMPOSED SOLELY OF MONTMORILLONITE. IN MONTMORILLONITE, ABSORPTION WATER PENETRATES BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL MOLECULAR LAYERS, AND AS A CONSEQUENCE SUCH MATERIAL HAS TREMENDOUS ABSORPTION SURFACE AND ENORMOUS WATER-ABSORPTION CAPACITY. HOWEVER, MONTMORILLONITE ALSO WILL ABSORB CERTAIN ORGANIC MOLECULES, PARTICULARLY THOSE THAT HAVE HIGH POLARITY. THE PRESENCE OF THESE ORGANIC MOLECULES DESTROYS THE WATER ABSORBING POWER OF THE MONTMORILLONITE SO THAT NO WATER WITH A DEFINITE CONFIGURATION DEVELOPS ON THE CLAY MINERAL SURFACES. SOIL MATERIALS ARE ALSO ANALYZED COMPOSED OF: KAOLINITE, ILLITE, HALLOYSITE, VERMICULITE, AND ATTAPULGITE-PALYGORSKITE SOILS. SALTS ADDED TO SOILS MAY PRODUCE CATIONS WHICH WILL BE ABSORBED BY THE CLAY MINERALS OR CAUSE BASE-EXCHANGE REACTIONS WITH RESULTING EFFECTS. ONE OF THE EFFECTS OF SOME SALTS MAY BE TO HYDRATE. THE SALT WOULD DEVELOP A HYDRATION STRUCTURE, WHICH IN EFFECT WOULD IMMOBILIZE THE WATER INVOLVED IN THE HYDRATION. THEREFORE, SALT TIES UP SOME WATER IN AN IMMOBILE FORM.

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  • Accession Number: 00237850
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Aug 26 1970 12:00AM