FROST RESEARCH IN SOILS-HISTORICAL REVIEW /IN NORWEGIAN/

THE SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES HAVE FROST SUSCEPTIBLE SOILS AND A SUBARTIC CLIMATE. FROST MAY PENETRATE TO A DEPTH OF 1.5 TO 3.0 METERS. CONSEQUENTLY, FOUNDATIONS MUST BE PLACED AT A GREATER DEPTH THAN NORMALLY REQUIRED FOR BEARING CAPACITY PURPOSES. BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES WITH INSUFFICIENT FOUNDATION DEPTH HAVE IN MANY CASES BEEN SEVERLY DAMAGED. FROST ACTION ALSO CAUSES EXTRA MAINTENANCE COST FOR ROADS AND RAILWAYS. THE NORWEGIAN STATE'S RAILWAYS SOLVED THIS PROBLEM BY REPLACING THE SUBSOIL WITH NON-FROST SUSCEPTIBLE MATERIAL OR BY INCREASING THE BASE COURSE THICKNESS. FOR REPLACEMENT, A LOWER SUB-BASE OF MATERIALS CAPABLE OF MAINTAINING A HIGH WATER CONTENT HAS FREQUENTLY BEEN USED. THIS PROVIDES A HIGHER FREEZING RESISTANCE AND A REDUCTION IN THE NECESSARY FOUNDATION DEPTH. BALES OF COMPRESSED PEAT OR BARK AND DISCARDED SLEEPERS HAVE BEEN USED FOR THIS PURPOSE. WITH FOUNDATIONS OF THIS KIND A TOTAL THICKNESS OF ONE METER HAS BEEN SUFFICIENT IN THE HIGH MOUNTAIN CROSSINGS (THE MOST SEVERE CONDITIONS). ON OLD ROADS THE MAIN CAUSE OF DAMAGE HAS BEEN THE REDUCED BEARING CAPACITY OF FROST SUSCEPTIBLE SUBSOIL DURING THE SPRING THAW. WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS IT BECOMES INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT TO REDUCE UNEVEN FROST HEAVING. RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN ROAD DESIGN SEEMS TO AIM AT ROADS WHERE FROST HEAVINGS ARE ENTIRELY ELIMINATED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FROST FREE FOUNDATIONS OF REDUCED THICKNESS IS IN PROGRESS. BARK IS NOW AVAILABLE AS A WASTEPRODUCT AND HAS BEEN USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A NUMBER OF ROADS. POLYSTYRENE BEAD-BOARDS HAVE BEEN USED IN TEST ROADS. THIS LATTER METHOD IS BASED ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE HEAT STORED IN THE SUBSOIL. A CONSIDERABLE RESEARCH EFFORT HAS BEEN DONE IN THE SCANDINVIAN COUNTRIES ON THE SUBJECT OF FROST IN SOILS. AS EARLY A 1914 THE SWEDE SIMON JOHANSSON SHOWED THAT WATER IS FLOWING TO THE FREEZING-FRONT AND THAT THE EXTRA SUPPLY OF WATER IS THE CAUSE OF EXCESSIVE FROST HEAVING AND THE LOSS OF BEARING CAPACITY DURING THE SPRING THAW PERIOD. THE SWEDE GUNNAR BESKOW PRODUCED A SERIES OF PUBLICATIONS DURING THE PERIOD 1930-1940 WHERE HE GAVE A BROAD VIEW OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC CONDITIONS DURING FREEZING. HE EXPLAINED HOW FROST HEAVING IS A PRODUCT OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS, CAPILLARITY AND THE POSITION OF THE GROUND WATER LEVEL. ABOUT 1940 THE NORWEGIAN A. WATZINGER AND HIS CO-WORKERS PUBLISHED THE RESULTS OF THEIR RESEARCH ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF REPLACEMENT MATERIALS. THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES WERE SHOWN TO BE A FUNCTION OF THE WATER CONTENT OF THE MATERIALS AND THEIR DRY UNIT WEIGHT. A FORMULA WAS PRESENTED FOR THE CALCULATION OF FROST PENETRATION BASED ON THE FREEZING RESISTANCE OF THE MATERIALS INVOLVED. /PRA/

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Nr 1, pp 5-9
  • Corporate Authors:

    Royal Norwegian Council Sci & Ind Res

    ,    

    Public Roads Administration, Norway

    Schwensengate 3
    Oslo 1,   Norway 
  • Authors:
    • Skaven-Haug, S
  • Publication Date: 1970-11

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00237949
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 25 1971 12:00AM