RELATION OF SEA WATER TO FRESH WATER IN CARBONATE ROCKS IN COASTAL AREAS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FLORIDA, U.S.A., AND CEPHALONIA (KEPHALLINIA), GREECE

THE PRINCIPLES CONTROLLING THE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN THE DENSER SALTY WATER AND THE LIGHTER FRESH WATER IN COASTAL AQUIFERS APPLY TO CARBONATE AS WELL AS SAND SYSTEMS. HOWEVER, UNDER CERTAIN EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS OF FRESH AND SALT WATER IN PARTS OF SOME CARBONATE AQUIFERS UNUSUAL HYDROLOGIC PHENOMENA RESULT. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AT TARPON SPRINGS, FLORIDA, AND CEPHALONIA, GREECE, INCLUDE DEEP VERTICAL OPENINGS AS SINKHOLES THROUGH A RELATIVELY IMPERVIOUS PART OF THE AQUIFER SYSTEM. IN BOTH CASES THE TOPS OF THE SINKHOLES OR NATURAL WELLS ARE EXPOSED TO SEA WATER. AT TARPON SPRINGS THE DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN SALT WATER AND FRESH WATER FLUCTUATES SO THAT THE FLOW OF SALT WATER FROM THE SPRING TO A LAKE 2 MILES AWAY IS SOMETIMES REVERSED. AT CEPHALONIA, THE HEAD OF FRESH WATER DOES NOT EXCEED THE HEAD OF SALTY WATER IN THE SINKHOLES; THE FLOW OF SEA WATER INTO THE AQUIFER, AIDED BY A SHALLOW CHANNEL FROM THE SEA, IS CONTINUOUS, AND THE WATER LEVEL IN THE SINKHOLE IS CONTINUOUSLY DEPRESSED BELOW SEA LEVEL. BOTH CASES REPRESENT A PARTIALLY CONFINED U-TUBE SYSTEM WHERE WATER AT THE SEAWARD, SINKHOLE END IS DENSER THAN AT THE OTHER END AND WHERE A LOW FRESH-WATER HEAD IS LESS THAN THE SALT-WATER HEAD. /JH/

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Vol 9, No 4, PP 387-404, 9 FIG, 18 REF
  • Authors:
    • Stringfield, V T
    • Legrand, H E
  • Publication Date: 0

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  • Accession Number: 00235638
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 20 1970 12:00AM