FAILURES OF BULKHEAD AND EXCAVATION BRACING

FACTORS LEADING TO FAILURES OF BULKHEADS AND BRACING SYSTEMS ARE ANALYZED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CLASSIFICATIONS: (1) EXCESSIVE EARTH PRESSURE, (2) INADEQUATE SUPPORT, (3) INADEQUATE CONSIDERATION OF OR ALLOWANCE FOR DEFLECTION, (4) POOR DESIGN DETAILS, (5) CORROSION OR DETERIORATION OF THE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS, AND (6) LACK OF CONSIDERATION OF EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS, BOTH FOR THE BULKHEAD OR BRACING AND FOR RELATED ADJACENT STRUCTURES. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT FAILURES OF ANCHOR BULKHEADS AND EXCAVATION BRACING SELDOM ARE THE RESULT OF THE INADEQUACIES OF MODERN EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES. INSTEAD THEY ARE CAUSED BY THE NEGLECT OF BACK FILL LOADS, CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS THAT PRODUCE EXCESSIVE EARTH PRESSURE, POORLY DESIGNED SUPPORT SYSTEMS, INADEQUATE ALLOWANCE FOR DEFLECTION, DETERIORATION AND CORROSION, AND POOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. ADEQUATE ATTENTION TO THE SOIL STRUCTURE SYSTEM BEHAVIOR AS WELL AS A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR EARTH PRESSURE ARE ESSENTIAL TO AVOID FAILURES AND TO PROVIDE ECONOMICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. THE DESIGNER MUST EVALUATE THE LOAD AND DEFORMATION CONDITIONS AS ACCURATELY AS MODERN THEORY PERMITS, THEN USE HIS INTUITION AND IMAGINATION TO DEVELOP A SYSTEM THAT WILL ALLOW FOR CONSTRUCTION BLUNDERS AND UNKNOWN LOADINGS AS WELL AS FOR THE WEAR AND TEAR OF USE AND MISUSE.

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  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Vol 37, No 1, PP 72-77, 13 FIG
  • Authors:
    • Sowers, G B
    • Sowers, G F
  • Publication Date: 0

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  • Accession Number: 00231231
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 15 2004 2:41AM