SOME EXPERIMENTS AND APPLICATIONS

FACTORS WHICH TEND TO LIMIT THE USE OF TRAFFIC EXPERIMENTATION FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES ARE: (1) THE INACCESSIBILITY OF EXPERIMENTAL SITUATIONS FOR MOST TRAFFIC THEORISTS, (2) THE EXPENSE OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR TRAFFIC EXPERIMENTS, AND (3) THE TIME USUALLY NEEDED TO REDUCE DATA FOR ANALYSIS. IMPORTANT GAINS ARE BEING MADE TO MEET THESE NEEDS. THERE HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAFFIC INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR MEASURING DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND VEHICULAR MOVEMENT. THE FOLLOWING TECHNIQUES ARE DISCUSSED WHICH HAVE BECOME ESSENTIAL IN THE STUDY OF COMPLEX TRAFFIC FLOW PROBLEMS: PHOTOGRAPHIC, CAR FOLLOWING, TRANSDUCERS, RECORDS, AND COMPUTERS. THCHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING DRIVER BEHAVIOR ARE: FORBES' MEASUREMENTS OF DRIVER REACTION TIME, DRIVING SIMULATION, AND GALVANIC SKIN REFLEX STUDIES. THE THEORY OF CAR FOLLOWING DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN WHICH ONE VEHICLE FOLLOWS ANOTHER. DATA WERE DERIVED FROM THE FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTS WHICH SUBSTANTIATED THE THEORY: FORBES' TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS AND GENERAL MOTORS CAR-FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTS. TRAFFIC BEHAVIOR WITHIN PLATOONS WAS STUDIED BY: FORBES' PLATOON STUDIES IN PASADENA, PORT AUTHORITY PLATOON EXPERIMENTS AND PLATOON FLOW THROUGH INTERSECTION TRAFFIC SIGNAL SYSTEMS. STUDIES ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAFFIC FLOW COMPARED TO WATER FLOW WERE MADE BY GREONSHIELDS, SPEED HEADWAY MEASURES BY ALCOTT OIL, EXPERIMENTS IN THE NEW YORK TUNNELS USING FLUID FLOW MODELS, AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK BY EDEDIE, FOOT, HERMAN AND ROTHERY. TRAFFIC THEORY OF FLOW CONTROL EXPERIMENTS LOCATE BOTTLE NECKS AND MEASURE TRAFFIC CAPACITY: (1) MANUAL TRAFFIC SPACING EXPERIMENTS OF GREENBERG AND DAOU, (2) INSTRUMENTED TRAFFIC SPACING BY FOOT, CROWLEY AND GONSETH, (3) EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLETELY AUTOMATIC FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM, (4) TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE ON THE JOHN LODGE EXPRESSWAY IN DETROIT, AND (5) CONGRESS FLOW CONTROL USED IN NEW YORK INCREASES THE PROPORTION OF TIME THAT TRAFFIC PASSES OVER A CRITICAL ROADWAY, KEEPING IT THAT TRAFFIC PASSES OVER A CRITICAL ROADWAY BY KEEPING IT MOVING SMOOTHLY AT MID-RANGE SPEEDS. OTHER EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF TRAFFIC FLOW THROUGH A SERIES OF INTERSECTIONS CAN BE INCREASED BY CONTROLLING THE SPACING OF VEHICLES ENTERING THE CRITICAL AREA WERE: (1) DUSSELDORF'S SIGNAL FUNNEL, (2) EXPERIMENTS WITH PACER SYSTEM IN DETROIT, AND (3) TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN TORONTO.

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00227260
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Aug 17 2001 12:00AM