STRESS AND STRAIN ON DRIVERS - A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATE OF THE ART OF RESEARCH

BELASTUNG UND BEANSPRUCHUNG DES KRAFTFAHRERS - LITERATURUEBERSICHT ZUM STAND DER FORSCHUNG

THE AIM OF THE PROJECT WAS TO REVIEW RESEARCH AT HOME AND ABROAD ON STRESS IN DRIVERS. MOST OF THE RESULTS WERE OBTAINED BY RECORDING PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DATA DURING TEST DRIVES IN NORMAL STREET TRAFFIC OR ON SPECIAL STRETCHES OF TEST ROADS. CONSIDERATION WAS GIVEN TO THE INFLUENCE OF MOMENTARY TRAFFIC CONDITIONS (ROAD LAYOUT, TRAFFIC DENSITY, SPEED, ETC.), OF PSYCHO-ACTIVE SUBSTANCES (CAFFEINE, NICOTINE, ALCOHOL, ETC.) AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS (DRIVING EXPERIENCE, TRAFFIC PERCEPTION) ON THE STRESS PARAMETERS, WHICH WAS INTERPRETED BY MEANS OF THE CONCEPTS "ACTIVATION" AND "PREPAREDNESS FOR RISKS". OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS HEART ACTION AND GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE (GSR) WERE STUDIED IN DETAIL, BECAUSE THERE ARE MOST PUBLICATIONS ON THIS SUBJECT AND BECAUSE THE RESULTS COMPLY MOST CLOSELY WITH THE VALUE CRITERIA OF BEHAVIOURAL MEASUREMENTS (OBJECTIVITY, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY). THE POSSIBILITY THAT MODERN TRAFFIC MAY HAVE LONG TERM INJURIOUS EFFECTS WAS CONSIDERED.