Traditionally, the U.S. Department of Transportation has relied on State motor vehicle crash data as their primary source of information on events causing injury to pedestrians and bicyclists. These data have often been referred to as "the tip of the iceberg," however, because they are limited almost entirely to motor vehicle-related events that occur on public roadways. Specifically, they exclude: (1) many bicycle-motor vehicle and pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes that occur in non-roadway locations such as parking lots, driveways, and sidewalks, and (2) bicyclist and pedestrian falls or other non-collision events that do not involve a motor vehicle, regardless of whether they occur on a roadway or in a non-roadway location. This report presents a descriptive analysis of data collected prospectively at eight hospital emergency departments over approximately a 1-year time period in three States: California, New York, and North Carolina. Information was gathered on 2,509 persons treated for injuries incurred while bicycling or walking. Results show that 70% of the reported bicycle injury events and 64% of the reported pedestrian injury events did not involve a motor vehicle. In addition, 31% of the bicyclists and 53% of the pedestrians were injured in non-roadway locations such as sidewalks, parking lots, or off-road trails. Alcohol was a factor in one-fourth of the pedestrian-motor vehicle injury events and 15% of the bicycle-motor vehicle injury events for those age 20 and older. The emergency department data were also examined in conjunction with statewide hospital discharge and motor vehicle crash data in an attempt to better define the overall scope and magnitude of the pedestrian and bicyclist injury problem.

  • Record URL:
  • Corporate Authors:

    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    Highway Safety Research Center
    Chapel Hill, NC  United States  27599

    Federal Highway Administration

    Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, 6300 Georgetown Pike
    McLean, VA  United States  22101
  • Authors:
    • Stutts, Jane C
    • Hunter, William W
  • Publication Date: 1999


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: Appendices; Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 133 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00806371
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: FHWA-RD-99-078,, Final Report
  • Contract Numbers: DTFH61-92-C-00138
  • Files: TRIS, USDOT
  • Created Date: Feb 13 2001 12:00AM