Human Factors Evaluation of Level 2 and Level 3 Automated Driving Concepts

The purpose of this study was to investigate user interactions with Level 2 and Level 3 partially automated vehicles. L2 and L3 were of interest because it is at this point where the driver’s role transitions and longitudinal and lateral control are ceded in varying degrees to the vehicle. At this point, the driver becomes an intermittent operator. For L2 and L3, the level of involvement by the human might vary. Therefore, the authors use the term operator as opposed to driver. The study focused on how these intermittent operators transition between automated and non-automated vehicle operation, and how this interaction is affected by the human-machine interface (HMI). Three experiments were performed with prototype partially automated vehicles on controlled test tracks in mixed traffic. The first experiment investigated which HMI characteristics are most effective at issuing a take-over request (TOR) during the operation of an L2 automated vehicle. The second experiment investigated how to prompt operators to attend to the road when distracted during the operation of an L2 automated vehicle, and whether these prompts are effective over time. The third experiment investigated which HMI characteristics are most effective at issuing a TOR during the operation of an L3 automated vehicle. The findings suggest that the most effective hand-off strategies were those that incorporated nonvisual components. The driver engagement patterns observed in this study provide data and evidence that could support the future development of human factors design principles for L2 and L3 partially automated vehicles.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Edition: Final Report
  • Features: Appendices; Figures; Photos; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 320p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01575837
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: DOT HS 812 182
  • Contract Numbers: DTNH22-11-D-00236, Task Order #11
  • Created Date: Aug 28 2015 11:56AM