Comparing Manned and Automated Horizontal Handling Equipment at Container Terminals: Productivity and Economic Analysis

The choice to use horizontal handling transport in automated container terminals is not fully consistent in comparison with the automation of stacking cranes at the storage yard. Often the decision of whether to use an automated system between the berth and the yard area is not clear, and terminal operators tend not to use automated systems. The goal of this paper is to provide an economic analysis to determine under which conditions automated horizontal transport is more efficient than a semiautomated system. The study provided several simulation models to calculate the optimal equipment necessary to connect storage and berth subsystems in a maritime container terminal in fully automated and semiautomated scenarios. Data from the semiautomated container terminal at the Port of Barcelona, Spain, were used. In addition to the cost analysis, guidelines on the best alternative, considering labor costs, throughput movements per quay crane and year, and quay crane productivity are provided.


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  • Accession Number: 01516280
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9780309295024
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 14-5012
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Jan 27 2014 3:45PM