The ever increasing demand for energy and transportation in the United States has given rise to an equal demand for petroleum and petroleum by-products. This in turn has provided the oil industry the impetus to import what oil it cannot produce on native soil. The importation of oil necessitates the use of ships, and the industry has determined that the importation of crude oil via shipping can most effectively and economically be accomplished with the use of large ships. There is one small problem with this progression of development; many of the larger ships which have been built and are being built cannot fit into the harbors designated to receive their cargos. Such is the case along the coast of Southern California. Most Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC's) draw considerably too much water to allow their entry into the principal ports of trade for petroleum products; specifically the harbors of Los Angeles and Long Beach. A typical VLCC draws well over sixty feet of water fully laden, while most berths in the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach have 35 to 40 feet of water at them. This obviously poses a dilemma for those who wish to discharge cargos from VLCC's. One solution to this problem has been the implementation of the operational procedure known as "lightering".

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Third Annual Combined Conference, Oceans '77, held October 17-19, 1977, Los Angeles. Also available from Engineering Societies Library.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    3 Park Avenue, 17th Floor
    New York, NY  United States  10016-5997

    Marine Technology Society

    5565 Sterrett Place, Suite 108
    Columbia, MD  United States  21044
  • Authors:
    • Kopeck, J T
  • Publication Date: 1977

Media Info

  • Pagination: 4 p.
  • Serial:
    • Volume: 1

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00173288
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 77CH1272-4 OEC Proceeding
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 26 1978 12:00AM