Knock-limited combustion of ethanol-, isobutanol-, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol-gasoline blends in a direct-injected spark-ignition engine

Knock-limited combustion of alcohol-gasoline fuel blends was studied in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Ethanol, isobutanol (2-methyl-1-propanol), and methylbutenol (2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol) were splash-blended with a blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) gasoline. Ethanol was blended in fractions of 10%, 20%, and 30% by volume (E10, E20, and E30). Isobutanol and methylbutenol were blended to match the oxygen weight percentage of the ethanol blends, resulting in blends of 16%, 32%, and 49% (I16, I32, and I49) isobutanol by volume and 18%, 37%, and 56% (M18, M37, and M56) methylbutenol by volume. Neat BOB and gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF) with octane numbers (ON) of 87 (PRF87) and 100 (PRF100) were included for reference. The engine was operated at fixed speed, equivalence ratio, and injection timing while knock-limited spark advance was located across a range of intake pressures. Low-level alcohol blends E10 and M18 had similar knocking behavior and appeared to be slightly more knock-resistant than I16. For mid-level blends, E20 showed further improvement over I32 while M37 showed noticeably better knock resistance, able to match the knock-resistance of PRF100 for loads above 1000 kPa gross indicated mean effective pressure (GIMEP). For high-level blends, the difference between E30 and I49 was similar to their mid-level counterparts. However, M56 showed significant improvement over E30 and I49 throughout the entire range of loads tested. M56 exceeded the knock-resistance of PRF100 for loads above 700 kPa GIMEP. The improved knock-resistance combined with the increased volumetric energy density of methylbutenol resulted in improved fuel consumption and indicated efficiency. The overall results of this study indicate that the order of knock-resistance of these three alcohols, for direct-injection operation with injection during the intake stroke, is isobutanol < ethanol < methylbutenol when compared on an equal oxygen weight basis.


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  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: pp 4251-4275
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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01896690
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 19 2023 11:33AM