Real-world charging behavior and preferences of electric vehicles users in Germany

As energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector have increased continuously in recent years, electric vehicles have become a potential solution to achieve environmental goals in this sector. The uptake of electric vehicle is strongly dependent on sufficient charging infrastructure. While much research has been conducted on electric vehicle charging simulations and projections, there is a research gap on real-world charging by actual users. Therefore, the authors conducted a survey on charging behavior and preferences in Germany in 2020 with around 4,000 electric vehicle users. The survey included a stated choice experiment and a willingness-to-pay-analysis. The authors found that participants’ charging behavior is dominated by home charging and that public infrastructure is perceived to be insufficient. Next to charging prices, measures of comfort through the occupancy rate of charging infrastructure and additional waiting time are driving factors when making the decision to charge. Participants specified an acceptable time for additional walking distances when parking at charging facilities between 5 and 10 minutes. High abstention rates in answering some questions indicate the need for sufficient education strategies considering existing and new charging technologies. Drivers with high annual mileage and battery electric vehicle users are willing to pay more for additional charging power. Users are open to smart charging, as long as flexibility for spontaneous trips is maintained. This research offers timely insights into real-world charging behavior and preferences, while providing recommendations for the future roll out of charging infrastructure in Germany.


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  • Accession Number: 01902793
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Dec 20 2023 3:43PM