Estimation of microplastic emission and transfer into Tokyo Bay, Japan, using material flow analysis

To reduce microplastic (MP) discharge into the aquatic environment, it is necessary to properly identify its sources and amounts. Here, specific MP sources, i.e., personal care products (PCPs), fibers from clothes, and tire-wear particles (TWPs) were focused, and MP generations from these sources in the Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, were estimated based on statistical data on production and reported emission factors of the MP sources and executing considering uncertainty on the data. Potential annual MP emission into Tokyo Bay was estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6, 38 ± 22, and 1500–1800 tons for PCPs, fibers, and TWPs, respectively. Emissions into Tokyo Bay by assuming MP density and diameter was estimated. For fiber, the fraction to potential emission was estimated at 1.0–2.8 %. This study contributes to determining potential discharge pathways. This will assist in the application of appropriate measures to reduce MP discharge into water bodies.


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  • Accession Number: 01894383
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 25 2023 2:46PM