Electric personal mobility device driver behaviors, their antecedents and consequences: A narrative review

Electric personal mobility devices (ePMDs), as well as crashes involving ePMDs, have been on the rise all over the world. The objectives of this study were: (a) to summarize the literature based on a narrow definition of ePMD (excluding e-bikes) and (b) to sort out the results to fit into a psychological and behavioral framework. The available literature was sorted into three main categories: the behaviors of ePMD drivers, their antecedents, and their consequences. A narrative review of the literature was carried out in 101 documents published between January 2018 and July 2021. Regarding behavioral antecedents, regulations vary from country to country. ePMDs were found to be used primarily by males under 40 years of age. The authors found no studies on driving skills or learning, driver education or training, or on the effect of health messages on attitudes and behavior. Regarding the main behaviors themselves, the drivers’ reasons for focusing on ePMDs were the main focus (use for short distances and mainly for commuting, shopping, and leisure). Few of the studies the authors reviewed explored the interactions between ePMD drivers and other road users in natural or simulated environments, and the influence of road infrastructure on behavior has rarely been studied. Regarding health consequences, reported ePMD crashes resulted in serious head and limb injuries, especially head and leg fractures. The lack of personal protective equipment (e.g., a helmet) increased the severity of crashes. The conclusion highlights gaps in the literature from a psychological and behavioral point of view.


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  • Accession Number: 01895397
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 5 2023 4:26PM