Evaluating vehicular exhaust and evaporative emissions via VOC measurement in an underground parking garage

Vehicular emissions, including both tailpipe exhaust and evaporative emissions, are major anthropogenic sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban cities. Current knowledge on vehicle tailpipe and evaporative emissions was mainly obtained via laboratory tests on very few vehicles under experimental conditions. Information on fleet gasoline vehicles emission features under real-world conditions is lacking. Here, VOC measurement was conducted in a large residential underground parking garage in Tianjin, China, to reveal the feature of the exhaust and evaporative emissions from real-world gasoline vehicle fleets. The VOC concentration in the parking garage was on average 362.7 ± 87.7  μg m⁻³, significantly higher than that in the ambient atmosphere at the same period (63.2 μg m⁻³). Aromatics and alkanes were the mainly contributors on both weekdays and weekends. A positive correlation between VOCs and traffic flow was observed, especially in the daytime. Source apportionment through the positive matrix factorization model (PMF) revealed that the tailpipe and evaporative emissions accounted for 43.2% and 33.7% of VOCs, respectively. Evaporative emission contributed 69.3% to the VOCs at night due to diurnal breathing loss from numerous parked cars. In contrast, tailpipe emission was most remarkable during morning rush hours. Based on the PMF results, the authors reconstructed a vehicle-related VOCs profile representing the combination of the tailpipe exhaust and evaporative emission from fleet-average gasoline vehicles, which could benefit future source apportionment studies.


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  • Accession Number: 01891856
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 29 2023 4:46PM