Effects of a CFD-improved dimple stepped-lip piston on thermal efficiency and emissions in a medium-duty diesel engine

Diesel piston-bowl shape is a key design parameter that affects spray-wall interactions and turbulent flow development, and in turn affects the engine’s thermal efficiency and emissions. It is hypothesized that thermal efficiency can be improved by enhancing squish-region vortices as they are hypothesized to promote fuel-air mixing, leading to faster heat-release rates. However, the strength and longevity of these vortices decrease with advanced injection timings for typical stepped-lip (SL) piston geometries. Dimple stepped-lip (DSL) pistons enhance vortex formation at early injection timings. Previous engine experiments with such a bowl show 1.4% thermal efficiency gains over an SL piston. However, soot was increased dramatically [SAE 2022-01-0400]. In a previous study, a new DSL bowl was designed using non-combusting computational fluid dynamic simulations. This improved DSL bowl is predicted to promote stronger, more rotationally energetic vortices than the baseline DSL piston: it employs shallower, narrower, and steeper-curved dimples that are placed further out into the squish region. In the current experimental study, this improved bowl is tested in a medium-duty diesel engine and compared against the SL piston over an injection timing sweep at low-load and part-load operating conditions. No substantial thermal efficiency gains are achieved at the early injection timing with the improved DSL design, but soot emissions are lowered by 45% relative to the production SL piston, likely due to improved air utilization and soot oxidation. However, these benefits are lost at late injection timings, where the DSL piston renders a lower thermal efficiency than that of the SL piston. Energy balance analyses show higher wall heat transfer with the DSL piston than with the SL piston despite a 1.3% reduction in the piston surface area. Vortex enhancement may not necessarily lead to improved efficiency as more energetic squish-region vortices can lead to higher convective heat transfer losses.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 2223-2232
  • Serial:

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01884397
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 1 2023 9:32AM