Numerical Modeling and Simulation to Predict Thermal Runaway Propagation in an EV Battery Pack

As the world is moving towards greener energy solutions, there is a clear transition seen from ICE to EV powertrain solution. The cost of vehicle is primarily controlled by battery pack as it is high capital intense. Though Li-Ion battery is a very promising technology in terms of energy storage and long-term performance, safety of battery is a concern. Battery can undergo self-fire/ thermal runaway due to several factors like aging, internal short, overcharging etc. A numerical investigation is carried out for a conceptual 10S1P prismatic battery pack to model the nail penetration using commercial ANSYS Fluent tool. Vent gas generation has been modelled and its convective effects on Thermal runaway were studied. Vent gas generation is supported through a user defined function which calculates the amount of flow rate that vent gas encounters during thermal runaway.Further, this procedure of vent gas calculation is extended to a realistic 16S8P cylindrical cell battery pack which has a cooling channel embedded in it. A comparative study is conducted to see the effectiveness of cooling channels by comparing heat transfer rate for same pack with and without the cooling flow. It is observed that cooling channel plays vital role in delaying thermal runaway when compared with results of battery pack without cooling flow. Further this study is extended to evaluate various failure modes of cells by conducting a study and understand worst cell model failure out of all the combinations.


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  • Accession Number: 01880026
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: SAE International
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 2023-01-0759
  • Files: TRIS, SAE
  • Created Date: Apr 20 2023 9:56AM