Secure Long-Range Autonomous Valet Parking: A Reservation Scheme With Three-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement

Long-range autonomous valet parking (LAVP) is a current trend, partly due to traffic congestion and parking headache. For large-scale parking demands, reservation is introduced to effectively manage valet parking. However, existing schemes focus on parking request verification and parking check-in, which aren't applicable to LAVP because they ignore identity legitimacy and communication security in the phase of picking up as well as dropping off passengers. One viable solution is authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol. Generally, due to low entropy of passwords and dictionary attacks, three-factor (i.e. passwords, biometrics, and smart card) AKA is more secure than single- and two-factor AKA. Unfortunately, known attacks and high overheads hinder the application of three-factor AKA in real-world environments. Hence, one of the most tough tasks is to balance security and availability, especially how to address the potential threats introduced by each factor while taking full advantage of three factors. Inspired by the above challenges, the authors propose a provably secure three-factor AKA protocol for reservation services in LAVP, namely SecLAVP. Specifically, the passenger and the autonomous vehicle (AV) complete mutual authentication with the assistance of drop-off/pick-up point (DP). After successful authentication, the session key is generated between the passenger, DP, and AV for secure communication. In the Real-Or-Random (ROR) model, the authors formally prove SecLAVP satisfies session-key security. Then, the authors apply AVISPA to simulate the authors' proposed protocol, to demonstrate that SecLAVP can resist man-in-the-middle attacks. Additionally, informal security analysis indicates that SecLAVP satisfies the authors' defined 16 design goals concerning security. Finally, the authors evaluate performance of SecLAVP in terms of communication overheads, computational overheads, and scheduling, to manifest the feasibility.


  • English

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01876630
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 23 2023 10:19AM