A Bayesian Regression Analysis of the Effects of Alert Presence and Scenario Criticality on Automated Vehicle Takeover Performance

Objective: This study investigates the impact of silent and alerted failures on driver performance across two levels of scenario criticality during automated vehicle transitions of control. Background: Recent analyses of automated vehicle crashes show that many crashes occur after a transition of control or a silent automation failure. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to investigating the impact of various factors on drivers’ responses, but silent failures and their interactions with scenario criticality are understudied. Method: A driving simulator study was conducted comparing scenario criticality, alert presence, and two driving scenarios. Bayesian regression models and Fisher’s exact tests were used to investigate the impact of alert and scenario criticality on takeover performance. Results: The results show that silent failures increase takeover times and the intensity of posttakeover maximum accelerations and decrease the posttakeover minimum time-to-collision. While the predicted average impact of silent failures on takeover time was practically low, the effects on minimum time-to-collision and maximum accelerations were safety-significant. The analysis of posttakeover control interaction effects shows that the effect of alert presence differs by the scenario criticality. Conclusion: Although the impact of the absence of an alert on takeover performance was less than that of scenario criticality, silent failures seem to play a substantial role—by leading to an unsafe maneuver—in critical automated vehicle takeovers. Application: Understanding the implications of silent failure on driver’s takeover performance can benefit the assessment of automated vehicles’ safety and provide guidance for fail-safe system designs.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 288-305
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01878147
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 30 2023 1:20PM