Linking spatial and temporal contexts to multi-contextual segregation by hukou status in urban China

The paradigm in segregation research is shifting from a place-based to a people-based perspective and from static spatial segregation to dynamic spatiotemporal segregation. However, empirical studies measuring individual-level segregation from a space–time nexus perspective are quite limited, and the effects of various geographic and temporal contexts in people's daily lives on segregation are not clear enough. Drawing on activity-travel diary data in Shanghai, China, the authors considered hukou (“household registration”) status as the key dimension in this research. Accordingly, they employed an individual-level spatiotemporal proximity index (i-STP index) to measure multi-contextual segregation and then examined the associations between various spatial and temporal contexts with regard to hukou segregation. In this study, they found that migrant and rural populations experience higher levels of segregation, not only in residential neighborhood or activity spaces, but also in various space–time contexts in their daily lives. Moreover, it reveals temporal variations in hukou segregation, which is correlated with the arrangement of daily activities and the temporal rhythm of the city. Their study also shows the various roles of geographical contexts within residential spaces and activity spaces that are segregated, indicating that improved facilities within activity spaces could help mitigate hukou segregation. Therefore, it contributes to the current literature with people-based dynamic measurements of hukou segregation and offers insight regarding the understanding of the relationship between spatial and temporal contexts as well as activity attributes with multi-contextual segregation.


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  • Accession Number: 01876252
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 21 2023 9:27AM