Battery Swapping for Electric Two-Wheelers in India: Strategy Hinterlands

The authors explored battery swapping for electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) in India. Battery swapping has clear benefits for powering electric vehicles, including quick battery installation. Battery-swappable E2Ws are sold without a pre-fitted battery, greatly reducing their purchase cost. The authors conducted quantitative analysis of the effects of various factors on vehicle total cost of ownership (TCO). The results show that TCO per kilometer (km) for both conventional two-wheelers and E2Ws is lowest in commercial operations with high daily usage, as in e-commerce deliveries and ride-hailing. In E2Ws this is chiefly due to the lower cost of battery swapping. The research helps identify policies supporting battery-swapping in India. Because lower battery prices will soon reduce the cost benefits of buying an E2W without a pre-fitted battery, policy makers should focus on factors less likely to soon change, such as the value of time saved on charging, and provide support for battery swapping operators (BSOs) to maintain best practices. This would involve extension of FAME II (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles in India) subsidies to E2Ws sold without batteries, and implementation of operational and safety standards for BSOs.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 25p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01851713
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jul 18 2022 9:29AM