External Human–Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicles from Pedestrians’ Perspective: A Survey Study

With the increasing number of automated vehicles (AVs) being tested and operating on roads, external Human–Machine Interfaces (eHMIs) are proposed to facilitate interactions between AVs and other road users. Considering the need to protect vulnerable road users, this paper addresses the issue by providing research evidence on various designs of eHMIs. Ninety participants took part in this experiment. Six sets of eHMI prototypes—Text, Arrowed (Dynamic), Text and Symbol, Symbol only, Tick and Cross and Traffic Lights, including two sub-designs (Cross and Do Not Cross)—were designed. The results showed that 65.1% of participants agreed that external communication would have a positive effect on pedestrians’ crossing decisions. Among all the prototypes, Text, and Text and Symbol, eHMIs were the most widely accepted. In particular, for elderly people and those unfamiliar with traffic rules, Text, and Text and Symbol, eHMIs would lead to faster comprehension. The results confirmed that 68.5% of participants would feel safer crossing if the eHMI had the following features: ‘Green’, ‘Text’, ‘Symbol’, or ‘Dynamic’. These features are suggested in the design of future systems. This research concluded that eHMIs have a positive effect on V2X communication and that textual eHMIs were clear to pedestrians.


  • English

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01846615
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 24 2022 10:09AM