Characteristics of Pedestrian Head Injuries Observed from Real World Collision Data

Head injury is one of the most common injury types in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, which leads to death and long-term disabilities. However, detailed analysis of pedestrian head injuries in real world collisions is scarce. Thus the current study used two samples of 120 cases and 184 cases extracted from 1060 pedestrian collision cases captured during 2000–2015 from the GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) database to investigate the detailed characteristics of AIS2+ pedestrian head injuries. Firstly, the interrelationship between different head injury types (skull fracture, focal brain injury, concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI)) was analyzed using the sample of 120 cases which each had at least one AIS2+ head injury. Then the influences of impact speed, pedestrian age and car front shape parameters on the injury risk of skull fracture, focal brain injury and concussion were assessed using the logistic regression method, based on the sample of 184 AIS1+ cases where the primary head contact location was within the windscreen glass area. The results show that: skull fractures and focal brain injuries dominate for AIS3+ head injuries and are generally associated with each other; concussion is the most important injury type for AIS2 head injuries and usually occurs in isolation. Further, for head impacts to the windscreen glass area a higher bonnet leading edge helps to reduce concussion odds, and none of the selected car front shape parameters are significant for the odds of skull fracture and focal brain injury, and vehicle impact speed and pedestrian age are insignificant for concussion. These detailed characteristics of pedestrian head injuries provide a basis for future pedestrian head injury prevention strategies with skull fractures and focal brain injuries being the most important injuries to address.


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  • Accession Number: 01707888
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 13 2019 5:29PM