Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars

In this study CO₂ and NOₓ emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars were compared using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The models sampled accounted for 56% of all passenger cars sold in Europe in 2016. The authors found gasoline vehicles had CO₂ emissions 13–66% higher than diesel. During urban driving, the average CO₂ emission factor was 210.5 (sd. 47) g km⁻¹ for gasoline and 170.2 (sd. 34) g km⁻¹ for diesel. Half the gasoline vehicles tested were Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Euro 6 GDI engines < 1.4l delivered ~ 17% CO₂ reduction compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI). Gasoline vehicles delivered an 86–96% reduction in NOₓ emissions compared to diesel cars. The average urban NOₓ emission from Euro 6 diesel vehicles 0.44 (sd. 0.44) g km⁻¹ was 11 times higher than for gasoline 0.04 (sd. 0.04) g km⁻¹. The authors also analysed two gasoline-electric hybrids which out-performed both gasoline and diesel for NOₓ and CO₂. They conclude action is required to mitigate the public health risk created by excessive NOₓ emissions from modern diesel vehicles. Replacing diesel with gasoline would incur a substantial CO₂ penalty, however greater uptake of hybrid vehicles would likely reduce both CO₂ and NOₓ emissions. Discrimination of vehicles on the basis of Euro standard is arbitrary and incentives should promote vehicles with the lowest real-world emissions of both NOₓ and CO₂.


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  • Accession Number: 01663835
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 22 2018 12:03PM